01 Material Testing

      Raw Material Preparation


Tire production begins with the selection and preparation of raw materials. These include natural or synthetic rubber(such as styrene-butadiene rubber or SBR), carbon black, silica, oils,steel cords and textile fibers (such as polyester, rayon, or aramid), vulcanizing agents (sulfur or sulfur compounds),reinforcing agents, accelerators, antioxidants, and other additives specific to the desired tire properties. Each component is carefully inspected and stored under controlled conditions to maintain its quality.

02 Mixing      



The mixing stage involves combining these raw materials in precise proportions according to a proprietary recipe or compound formulation. This is carried out in an enclosed machine called a internal mixer or banbury mixer, where intense mechanical action and heat ensure thorough blending of the ingredients. The resulting homogeneous mixture, known as compound or rubber compound, is then sheeted out for further processing.

03 Extrusion


In extrusion, the compound is forced through a die to create continuous profiles like bead wires, apex strips, or tire cords.Compound can also be extruded into continuous profiles, such as bead cores, apexes, or various types of reinforcements, using specialized extruders.Textile or steel cords are manufactured separately and treated with various coatings to enhance adhesion with the rubber compound. Steel cord is produced by twisting multiple high-tensile steel wires together, while textile cords involve spinning and weaving fibers into plies. These treated cords are then stored until needed for tire construction.

04 Calendering


Sheets of uncured rubber compound may be passed through a series of rollers in a calendering machine to achieve the desired thickness and uniformity. In calendering, the compound is passed through a series of rollers to form thin, uniform sheets (such as for inner liners, treads, and sidewalls). These sheets are later used for components like treads, sidewalls, and inner liners.We use Comerio Calendering Machine from Italy, which are designed and built with great attention to detail to ensure precise control of temperature, pressure and roller speed. This precision is critical to achieving consistent product thickness, surface finish and material properties. Comerio calenders typically feature advanced control systems that allow operators to monitor and adjust process parameters in real time. These systems typically include user-friendly interfaces, data logging capabilities, and integration with Industry 4.0 technologies to enhance process control, efficiency, and traceability.

05 Cutting & Component Fabrication


The individual components of a tire are manufactured separately before assembly: • Bead Wires: High-tensile steel wires are formed into circular loops called bead wires, which provide anchorage for the tire onto the wheel rim. • Carcass Ply Assembly: Layers of rubber-coated textile or steel cords are laid radially or diagonally to form the carcass ply, providing the basic structural framework of the tire. • Tread Application: The pre-manufactured tread strip or extruded tread compound is applied over the assembled carcass, ensuring proper adhesion and alignment. • Belt Construction: Reinforcing layers, often made of steel or aramid belts, are placed between the carcass and tread to enhance stability, handling, and resistance to punctures. • Sidewall and Inner Liner Assembly: Sidewall rubber is applied, followed by the inner liner, which provides protection against moisture and air permeation.


We used Fischer Cutting Machine from Germany, The cutting machines are known for their superior accuracy, efficiency and adaptability to a wide range of cutting requirements. It comes with powerful software for efficient pattern design, nesting and optimization. The software is seamlessly connected to the machine, allowing easy import of digital patterns, automatic nesting to minimize material usage, and precise control of cutting parameters. It uses advanced cutting systems, laser or waterjet technology to achieve extremely precise cuts while minimizing material waste. These features streamline production processes, reduce manual labor, and ensure consistent cutting results, even when working with large or heavy rolls of material.

06 Forming   



The actual tire assembly takes place on a tire-building machine, where the various components are assembled in a predetermined sequence. First, the inner liner is applied to the drum, followed by the carcass plies – layers of coated textile or steel cords laid at specific angles for strength and flexibility. The beads, made of steel wire loops, are then positioned at the drum’s edges. Next, additional structural elements like belt plies, apex strips, and chafers are added, followed by the tread and sidewall compounds. The entire assembly is then cured onto the drum, creating a green (uncured) tire. 

We use the industry’s most advanced Krupp Forming Machines from Germany to ensure that each tire has a uniform shape during the molding process, that the tire components are mounted with high precision, and that the fit between the rubber ply and the tire shoulder and wall is tight and precise.



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07  Vulcanization  Curing


The green tire undergoes vulcanization, a chemical process that transforms the rubber compound from a pliable state to a durable, elastic material with the desired mechanical properties. Green tires undergo a critical transformation in curing presses, where they are subjected to heat, pressure, and a controlled time cycle. Vulcanization involves the chemical reaction between sulfur or other vulcanizing agents present in the rubber compound and accelerators, causing cross-linking of rubber molecules. This process dramatically enhances the tire's mechanical properties, such as strength, elasticity, and resistance to heat, abrasion, and deformation. The tires are placed in molds, which impart the final tread pattern and sidewall markings during the curing process.

Our plants use 212-inch and 188-inch giant hydraulic engineering tire curing presses and 49-51-inch giant all-steel radial tire molding machines. In addition to the giant tire equipment, two innovative models, 88-inch dual-mode hydraulic and 122-inch single-mode hydraulic, significantly reduce the time for tire mold changeover, greatly improving production efficiency and product reliability.

08 Inspection and Finishing  


After curing, tires undergo rigorous inspection for dimensional accuracy, uniformity, and visual defects. They are also tested for balance, uniformity of weight distribution, and air retention. Any necessary corrections, such as trimming excess rubber or patching minor imperfections, are performed at this stage. Tires that meet quality standards proceed to have their manufacturer's name, model, size, and other markings permanently embossed or painted on.